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Passage-Based Reading

(Note: Passages on the PSAT/NMSQT are between 450 and 850 words long. This passage is taken from a 1964 speech given by a prominent African American novelist in which he discusses writers and their art.)

Line    Ernest Hemingway reminds us that both Tolstoy and
Stendahl had seen war, that Flaubert had seen a revolution,
that Dostoyevsky had been sent to Siberia, and that such
experiences were important in shaping the art of these
5 nineteenth-century literary masters. And he goes on to
observe that "writers are forged in injustice as a sword
is forged." He declined to describe the many personal
forms which injustice may take in this chaotic world --
who would be so mad as to try? -- nor does he go into the
10 personal wounds that each of these writers sustained. In the
end it is the quality of Hemingway's art that is primary. It
is the art which allows the wars and revolutions which he
knew, and the personal and social injustice which he suf-
fered, to lay claims on our attention, for it was through his
15 art that they achieved their most enduring meaning. It is a
matter of outrageous irony, perhaps, but in literature great
social clashes of history, no less than the painful experience
of the individual, are secondary to the meaning they take on
through the skill, talent, imagination, and personal vision
20 of the writer who transforms them into art. Here they are
reduced to more manageable proportions; here they are
imbued with humane values; here injustice and catastrophe
become less important in themselves than what the author
makes of them. This is not true, however, of the writer's
25 struggle with that recalcitrant angel called Art, and it was
through this specific struggle that Ernest Hemingway
became Hemingway. And it was through this struggle
with form that he became the master, the culture hero,
whom we have come to know and admire.

In the passage, art is described as a "recalcitrant angel" (line 25) because

(A)  writers have traditionally found it difficult to achieve mastery of artistic form

(B)  so few artists have found fame and appreciation for their work

(C)  art does not readily relieve the suffering of those caught in unjust situations

(D)  divine inspiration is often considered intrinsic to artistic creation

(E)  writer's block is a frequent result of the artist's struggle with new forms